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日本究竟是不是无条件投降?  

2014-10-20 15:28:50|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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对于日本在“二战”中的战败,我们习惯性地称其是“无条件投降”。事实上,相对于德国而言,日本的投降其实是“有条件”的。

1945年7月26日,美、英、中三国发表《促令日本投降之波茨坦公告》。日本当局对于是否接受,意见不一。首相铃木贯太郎主张对其“置之不理”,“为战争到底向前迈进”。随后美国对日本使用了原子弹。

日本军政首脑见战败已成定局,遂主张“护持国体”,即在保留天皇制的前提下,向盟国投降。军方不满足于此,还要提出自行处理战犯、自主解除武装、同盟国军队不进占日本本土或仅限于象征性驻兵等条件。在8月9日的御前会议上,最终由裕仁天皇“圣断”:“仅以确认皇室和天皇统治大权为条件,接受波茨坦公告。”①

8月10日,日本通过中立国瑞士和瑞典,照会美、英、中、苏四国,表示准备接受《波茨坦公告》,但“附以一项谅解:上述公告并不包含有损天皇陛下为最高统治者的权利的任何要求”,“日本政府竭诚希望这一谅解能获保证,并切望迅速对这种保证予以明确表示”。

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